Apa Plywood

Show more 28 photos · 1,646 views. While the International Building Code defines both OSB and plywood as “wood structural panels” and the American Plywood Association (APA) describes them to be structurally equal, it is important to understand that each product is manufactured differently and therefore perform better under varying circumstances. Plywood produced on or after Jan. Must be designed in accordance w/ Florida Building Code 2017. Suitable applications for structural plywood. GET HELP >. Tongue and Groove or Square Edge. In plywood manufacture, a log is turned on a lathe. Furnished: YES Lease Term: Minimum 1 month. Perhaps the biggest thing plywood has going for it is the perception of higher quality among homeowners. If you have trouble accessing any of APA's web resources, please contact us at 202-559-3900 or [email protected] It's ideal for handling long or bulky loads such as steel, bar stock, tubing, laminates, lumber or plywood - with stacking capabilities up to 30 feet high. Table 1 shows you how to read and understand the stamp that makes up the label. Bond Classifications. The use of underlayment is not assumed. All resilient flooring manufacturers approve the use of appropriately-graded APA plywood under all types of resilient flooring, provided it is installed correctly. Burning an MDF file in Windows. It is a document that is recommended for use by specifiers and contractors to review standards of all. Hardwood plywood (often simply referred to as ‘plywood’) is a type of wood that is actually manmade – so technically it is not actually a natural wood, but rather is an engineered wood product. Standards • Structural plywood as listed in BS EN 1995-1-1. - The Proof is in Our Panels! -For Specs and general information on our wood products, click the APA link. APA - Antica Pasticceria Artigianale. Panel grades are generally identified in terms of the veneer grade used on the face and back of the panel (e. We can then provide take-offs, present a competitive quote, prepare your complete package, and provide timely delivery to your jobsite. What Affects the Weight of Plywood. Includes APA RATED SHEATHING/CEILING DECK. Minimum 15/32" APA rated plywood or minimum 7/16" APA rated OSB is placed over the insulation and may be secured to the steel deck. Freud's undersized plywood bits are specifically sized to match the actual thickness of 1/4'', 1/2"'' and 3/4'' plywood (7/32'', 15/32'' and 23/32'') for perfect gap-free dados. ICC Digital Codes is the largest provider of model codes, custom codes and standards used worldwide to construct safe, sustainable, affordable and resilient structures. These grades are typically sold at a premium and have more stable margins than commodity plywood markets. When two letters are present (ex. Tongue-and-groove edges, panel edge clips (one midway* between each support, except two equally spaced between supports 48 inches on center or greater), lumber blocking, or other. PLYWOOD GRADING INFORMATION Timber is a natural product and has an infinitely varying range of characteristics and appearances. This style has knots. Plywood is a widely recognized engineered wood-based panel product that has been used in Canadian construction projects for decades. Dengan penangangan yang baik, multiplek bisa bertahan hingga sepuluh tahun. The Product Advisory is based on a series of tests APA conducted in July 2017 through April 2018 on nine sets of Brazilian plywood imported from seven. Additionally, all of RoyOMartin’s plywood products are APA rated and available Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) certified, FSC® C022036, ideal for LEED and NGBS projects. It provides a comprehensive guide to architectural specifications. Apa itu?? Apa itu??apa itu particle board?, apa itu MDF? apa itu blockboard? dan apa itu plywood atau multiplek?pertanyaan itu semua akan terjawab jika kalia. As the name suggests, structural plywood is best used for building and construction purposes like beams and hoardings. Model #3424CCPCE. This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. 1(1) ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa, b, c c. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA. applies to APA Rated Plywood Sturd-I-Floor. Treated lumber and plywood can be provided with an FSC chain of custody by SPECIAL ORDER. 5x10 plywood lowes. Table 1 applies to APA Rated Sheathing. And it contains panel installation recommendations for typical construction applications. Veneer definition, a thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood. Some consumers still perceive plywood as a better quality product—unlike OSB, it actually looks like wood and most people are familiar with it—which is one reason plywood dominates the market for DIY projects. For the applications described here, APA Rated Sheathing or APA Rated Sturd-I-Floor® meet the requirements for structural sheath-ing and flooring. The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need not be adjusted for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments. These APA panels are performance rated. 9 mm) Type X exterior sheathing panels. CSA O121, CSA O151, and CSA O153 apply to exterior bond, all-veneer plywood. MDO plywood is also manufactured in two grades; Concrete Form and General. I would say it is a least 25 pounds per sq inch per 1/4 " thickness. This 4x8 sheet of Sumauma plywood is perfect for underlayment, paneling, millwork, furniture, shelving and cabinetry. Follow underlayment manufacturer’s installation instructions for spacing and fastening. We carry a wide selection of plywood and sheet-goods, and offer more specialty items at a quick lead time. But plywood has many advantages: •Dimensional stability. However, Baltic Birch plywood is generally regarded as being of higher quality than standard birch plywood. For Basic Construction. There are two classes of plywood, i. APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc plywood, commonly called 2-4-1, is also used in heavy timber roof construction. ICC Digital Codes is the largest provider of model codes, custom codes and standards used worldwide to construct safe, sustainable, affordable and resilient structures. What does APA stand for in Plywood? Get the top APA abbreviation related to Plywood. Every three months, ten panels which are repre-sentative of the manufacturer's production shall be tested in conformance to the APA publication. Specifications of marine plywood, APA Specifications. Must be designed in accordance w/ Florida Building Code 2017. APA - Antica Pasticceria Artigianale. Apa Itu Plywood? Plywood sering disebut dengan tripleks atau kayu lapis adalah sejenis papan pabrikan yang yang terdiri lapisan kayu (venir kayu) yang direkatkan bersama-sama. Prime and paint or use two coats of opaque (solid color) stain. Regular MDO is produced with B-grade face and back veneers and C-grade inner plies. ), and other helpful material to learn APA Style. Panel grades are generally identified in terms of the veneer grade used on the face and back of the panel (e. Baltic Birch Plywood Sheets are not a specific species of birch, but is a general designation of plywood from Russia and nearby Baltic states (such as Finland). Otherwise, the trademark is stamped on the back of the panel. Marine Fir This 3/4 in. Priming is not necessary on clean, dry plywood. The false-advertising lawsuit filed by attorneys at Holland & Knight in Florida and Haglund Kelley in Oregon claims Brazilian plywood exports are defective and falsely certified for strength and. The plywood use recommendations contained herein are based on APA - The Engineered Wood Association's continuing program of laboratory testing, product research and comprehensive field experience. at interior supports (a) Design in accordance with local building code requirements for roof loads and anchorage. • Suitable for use in BS EN 335 Use class 2. A: Structural plywood, OSB and other wood structural panels, as well as other structural engineered wood products, such as wood I-joists, laminated veneer lumber and glued-laminated timber are not included in the scope of the CARB and EPA formaldehyde regulations. 40 pcf retention. I am about to lay 1/2" APA Underlayment rated plywood down as an underlayment over 3/4" plywood subfloor for 1/2 strand woven bamboo. For quick, easy installation between plywood panels for roof sheathing or panelized construction. The t&g feature just happened to be a byproduct of the type of wood I was looking for, and 3/4 was the only size available to me. Exterior Plywood. Most of the plywood goes into residential sheathing and general construction. For sanded plywood panels, see Table 3. Our Bruynzeel Okoume Gaboon (Aucoumea klaineana) plywood is rated as BS 1088 and is the best product to be used for boat building and extreme environments. Construction must conform to code, but plywood must not be less than 23⁄ 32" (20 mm) thick. A structural wood panel composed of a D-grade or better face, back and inner plies cross-banded for strength. Dinding rumah bisa kamu sulap jadi lebih keren dengan hiasan dinding dari kayu. AB Marine Plywood This 3/4 in. Consult with a professional installer, licensed contractor or, for detailed application and installation instructions, write to: APA- The Engineered Wood Association 7011 S. The plywood use recommendations contained herein are based on APA - The Engineered Wood Association's continuing program of laboratory testing, product research and comprehensive field experience. Thanks pb4sc. Actual product may vary by (and not limited to) dimension, color, grain, etc. Match bearing area of blocks below to post above. Select from 51 workshops being held online August 3 – 7. If you examine plywood closely you may notice a repetition of the wood grain pattern. I would say it is a least 25 pounds per sq inch per 1/4 " thickness. I'm aware that plywood is the preferred substrate for hardwood flooring, and I'm aware of the disadvantages of OSB. Inspect Plywood Combination Sub floor Underlayment (R503. This is to attest that. embossed dimples/built-in spacer type feature provide APA recommended 1/8" gap. applies to APA Rated Plywood Sturd-I-Floor. Exterior fire retardant wood, exterior fire retardant lumber, exterior fire retardant plywood, exterior fire retardant timber, Fire Retardant treated lumber, plywood, timber and timbers are vacumm pressure impregnated with Flame Safe fire retardant to comply with the ASTM E84 standard and shall have a flame spread of 25 or less, fire retardant OSB, fire retardant i-joists, interior fire. Hardel produces a full line of sanded panels, 303 plywood sidings and marine grade panels, along with structural 9' + 10' sheathing panels. The BC simply means there’s one B-grade side sanded and smooth, backed by a C-grade side. Yellow pine and Douglas fir are the types of wood treated with borate. APA 2020 Virtual also includes an outstanding lineup of 2. B-grade or better veneer on both sides usually carry the APA trademark on the panel edge. 1(1) , or APA E30. By Roger Fleck Issue 114 Synopsis: This article describes the author’s innovative technique for building hollow 12-in. APA has never actually tested H-clips to see how much they improve (reduce) deflection. RTD plywood is the next generation of plywood made specifically for the construction industry. APA Plywood is manufactured in thicknesses ranging from 6 mm. Hardwood plywood is a manufactured panel made up of 3 or more thin layers of wood veneer laid on top of each other and glued with the grain of each layer or ply running perpendicular to the one on either side of it. #07 • Plywood Box Beam Construction for Detached Housing Page 4 Introduction Plywood box beams are lightweight, simple to fabricate, conventionally stable and, with good design, structurally effi cient and economical. , A-B, B-C) or by a name suggesting the panel’s intended end use (e. This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. APA was founded in 1933 as the Douglas Fir Plywood Association to advance the interests of the burgeoning Pacific Northwest plywood industry. AWPA Standards are developed by its technical committees in an ANSI accredited consensus-based process that involves individuals from all facets of wood preservation: Producers of preservatives and preservative components; producers of treated and untreated wood. For complete panel. Plywood is sold in a variety of thicknesses, commonly from a quarter to three-quarters of an inch. At Curtis Lumber & Plywood Terminal, we proudly offer a wide selection of high quality plywood products for jobs of all kinds. Even within the different plywood grades, you’ll likely find a wide range in the number of repairs or defects. ~ ~ T-111 style Siding Choices $19 T-111 shop Siding 4'x8' x 3/8" thick Saw Textured with No Grooves Beautiful Durable Okoume wood face. I know a. Keep Up-To-Date With The EWTA. The several materials available for underlayment include particle board, hardboard and oriented-strand board (OSB), but American Plywood Association (APA)-graded plywood is widely accepted as a suitable choice for most jobs. PLYWOOD - EXTERIOR PLYWOOD Exterior Grade Softwood Plywood is most commonly used in the construction industry for its structural qualities and price point. and Canadian manufacturers of structural engineered wood products, including plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), glued. Birch Plywood Panels. This is wide open grain where water may gain access deep into the plywood and cause delamination. The first letter indicates the front side of the plywood. Get help from your local APA Engineered Wood Specialist, offering free consultations for construction professionals. Comes in wood grain and solid furnished. For complete panel. interior (which doesn't stand up to frequent wetting) and exterior (which isn't affected by long-term wetting and would be called waterproof). 1 Plywood Grade Applicable grades include APA RATED SHEATHING EXP 1, APA RATED SHEATHING EXT, APA STRUCTURAL I RATED SHEATHING EXP 1, and APA STRUCTURAL I RATED SHEATHING EXT. Pine Finishing Recommendations. This is to attest that. 1-1/8" APA Rim Board, Rim Board Plus, or 3000 3500 Rated Sturd-I-Floor 48 oc 1" APA Rim Board or Rated Sturd-I-Floor 32 oc 2700 3500 1e Transfer load from above to bearing below. APA Rated Sheathing, 40/20 Span Rating, 19/32 inch, 4x8. Standard spruce plywood manufactured with waterproof glue resist expansion and shrinkage. Pengertian Plywood. Plywood is a cheap and durable building supply that is used both for exterior and interior building purposes as well as for building furniture and cabinets. Kelebihan plywood. Plywood is available in different grades – A, B, C, and D. The plywood sheets range from 3/8ths to 5/8ths of an inch thick and come in 4×8 sheets. 0 Plywood – structural – part 0: specifications AS/NZS 2269. Available February 1st, 2021 Bedroom: 2 Bathroom:2 Ensuite Washer / Dryer Size: 571 Sq. APA’s installation guidelines for 1/4-inch plywood should be followed when installing lauan plywood, but installers BEWARE: Lauan is made under a wall-panel specification of the International Hardwood Products Association (IHPA). org for assistance. Over the years, the company has steadily grown and expanded to become one of the largest manufacturers of hardwood lumber in North America. The 24-gauge steel material is ASTM. Includes C-C, C-C STR-1, C-D, and C-D STR 1 plywood and APA performance rated nonveneer panels. I'm aware that plywood is the preferred substrate for hardwood flooring, and I'm aware of the disadvantages of OSB. Do not intentionally leave spacing or gaps between panels. STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD Effective December 1, 2019 (This Standard, which was initiated by APA - The Engineered Wood Association [formerly the American Plywood Association], has been developed under the Procedures for the Development of Voluntary Product Standards of the U. Span rating is a 2 number index such as XX/YY 1. This creates a much more stable and structurally sound sheath that can be used over the exterior. APA plywood is designated under the lowest E1 category for formaldehyde release without needing further testing. APA Plywood is manufactured in thicknesses ranging from 6 mm. The plywood use recommendations contained herein are based on APA – The Engineered Wood Association’s continuing program of laboratory testing, product research and comprehensive field experience. The other option is to have a stile in the middle of the span and put shelf supports on the stile and the backs of the cabinet, effectively cutting the shelf in two. American Psychiatric Association; American Psychological Association; also. Applies to APA RATED SHEATHING and APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR panels 24 inches or wider applied over two or more spans. Plywood Bonding Types. From humble beginnings in the heart of Alabama's pine belt, Scotch Plywood Company, Inc. APA Rated® Sheathing An APA Performance Rated Panel designed and manufactured specifically for residential and other light frame wall sheathing, roof sheathing and subflooring applications. Hardwood plywood is a manufactured panel made up of 3 or more thin layers of wood veneer laid on top of each other and glued with the grain of each layer or ply running perpendicular to the one on either side of it. Install squash blocks per 1d. A structural exterior (water resistant) adhesive is used to adhere the veneer layers together. The higher grade panels are sanded. Nominal product information shown. Each layer of wood, or ply, is usually oriented with its grain running at right angles to the adjacent layer in order to reduce the shrinkage and improve the strength of the finished piece. Check the current edition for updated design and application recommendations. It is is the best solution for your concrete forming projects. It is also available in a metric size of 1200 mm by 2400 mm. We manufacture a variety of Plywood, Lumber, and other specialty wood products. Box 407 Bingen, WA 98605 509-493-1444 | Fax: 509-493-1149. West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau Visit Website. Brows our selection of plywood and lumber at the Plywood C. Any boards exhibiting movement should be renailed. Use it to create strong walls, roofs, and floors. All definitions are approved by humans before publishing. KS – based on Un-sanded Panel values from Table 1 of APA Plywood Design Specification (January 1997) c. Common Plywood Applications. You’ll find facts about plywood uses, grading and specs. Plywood Plywood is the original wood structural panel. General Format. APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR panels are designed specifically for single-floor (combined subfloor-underlayment) applications under carpet and pad and are manufactured with Span Ratings of 16, 20, 24, 32 and 48 oc. Panel Construction & Moisture Resistance: Tempered Plyron® is constructed of tempered hardboard laminated to Douglas Fir/Hemlock plywood. Because APA has no control over quality of workmanship or the conditions under which engineered wood products are used, it cannot accept responsibility of product performance or designs as actually constructed. 1/4” Minimum Penetration through Plywood. Select from 51 workshops being held online August 3 – 7. Hood Plywood Hood Industries Attn: Plywood Sales 3890 Veteran’s Memorial Drive Hattiesburg, MS 39401 Phone: 601-264-2962 Fax: 601-296-4755. Birch Plywood 4x8. Plywood is a frequently used material for external structural sheathing. Re: Roof Sheathing TABLE R503. Typical APA sanded plywood trademarks (edgemarks and backstamps) are illus-trated and explained above. The finest range of pre-laminated MDF boards at affordable prices at Assam Plywood Agencies. Most relevant lists of abbreviations for APA (American Plywood Association). Nominal product information shown. plywood, veneered panels and similar laminate d woo - hdo 100/30 g1 1-step 19m 1220x2440 sy mons logo - plywood 17 units = 46 pcs50, 048. Any boards exhibiting movement should be renailed. These are particularly important in any business which experience heavy human resource labor costs: construction, manufacturing, etc. Greenpanel Club Plywood is a high-density, premium-grade structural plywood that can handle heavier loads. The Span Rating on APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR and APA RATED SIDING panels appears as a single number. 3 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness according to APA Plywood Design. The first letter indicates the front side of the plywood. Design should be based on the value in boldface for each combination. and APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR panels 24 inches or wider applied over two or more spans. Comes in wood grain and solid furnished. 1-1/8" APA Rim Board, Rim Board Plus, or 3000 3500 Rated Sturd-I-Floor 48 oc 1" APA Rim Board or Rated Sturd-I-Floor 32 oc 2700 3500 1e Transfer load from above to bearing below. Because APA has no control over quality of workmanship or the conditions under which engineered wood products are used, it cannot accept responsibility of product performance or designs as actually constructed. We can then provide take-offs, present a competitive quote, prepare your complete package, and provide timely delivery to your jobsite. Please be advised that due to COVID-19, catalog mailings may be delayed. Plywood APA abbreviation meaning defined here. Burning an MDF file in Windows. Plywood veneers for general purposes are graded from A grade being the top grade to D grade being the bottom or lowest grade. Hardel manufactures standard and custom plywood panels with quality you can trust and a product we stand behind. org; or through the APA website at www. APA RATED SHEATHING 1. ENGINEEREDWOOD CONSTRUCTIONGUIDE THE ENGINEERED WOOD ASSOCIATION APA Note: This version is superseded by a more current edition. Plywood Sheathing Image Credit: peacocklumber. Contributor: Office of Charles and Ray Eames Date: 1943. Plywood is a cheap and durable building supply that is used both for exterior and interior building purposes as well as for building furniture and cabinets. Whole wood materials are usually Class II, while reconstituted wood materials such as plywood, particle board or hardboard are Class III. Hi-Bor APA-Rated Sheathing Pressure-Treated Plywood Grip-Rite #8 x 1-5/8 in. Is this 3/4" Sturd-I-Floor stuff okay for hardwood? I can't believe I didn't catch this sooner because I even manage the showroom where I bought my floor. With more than a dozen common thicknesses and over twenty different grades, plywood is well-suited to a multitude of demanding applications. Consider solid veneered and one-side sanded panels for all outdoor and indoor DIY projects, such as countertops, furniture, and table finishing. APA Certified: T-PLY products are structurally certified to CSA 0121 plywood standards. APA Rated Sheathing Span Rating Bond Classification Mill Number APA Panel Grade Product Standard and Panel Grade HUD Recognition Performance Category APA Rated OSB Sheathing Roof Panels Performance Category* APA Span Rating Allowable Live Load for Roofs (psf)** 3/8 24/0 30 7/16 24/16 40 15/32 32/16 70 1/2 32/16 70 19/32 40/20 130 23/32 48/24 175. The American Plywood Association is a nonprofit trade association whose member mills produce approximately 80 percent of the structural wood panel products manufactured in the United States and a significant percentage of panels produced in Canada. The BC simply means there’s one B-grade side sanded and smooth, backed by a C-grade side. Previously, APA conducted tests on imported hardwood plywood panels from China and Brazil up against the PS 1 in 2007. Choose all three APA 2019 meetings and receive a 15% discount, plus priority booth location! Please note that the multi-meeting discount is only available for orders submitted on a single order form. Panels with B-grade veneers throughout or C-grade backs for sid-ing can also be manufactured. APA Plyform panels, however, are specifically designed to withstand the wear-and-tear of repeated concrete pours, as well as to provide a smoother and more consistent finish to the concrete’s surface. It's ideal for handling long or bulky loads such as steel, bar stock, tubing, laminates, lumber or plywood - with stacking capabilities up to 30 feet high. All loads are based on two span condition (C = 96 in/ft) with panels 24 inches wide or wider, strength axis perpendicular to supports. Severe Weather. HullNumber. The APA stamp on each plywood panel is there to identify Coastal Forest Resources as the manufacturer and to warrant the panel as meeting the PS 1-09 and the PS 2-10 requirements for a particular plywood classification. Treated plywood is regular plywood that has been run through a pressure treating cycle. We have been custom-treating and custom-drying plywood and industrial LVL for more than twenty years. 88 ea: ea Add. However, quality of workmanship and the conditions under which plywood is used vary widely. If you examine plywood closely you may notice a repetition of the wood grain pattern. CAN/CSA O325 applies to structural-use wood-based panels such as certain types of plywood but also oriented strand board (OSB) and waferboard. For sanded plywood panels, see Table 3. Learn more about us. But ninety-five percent of all exterior plywood and oriented strand board (OSB), that carries the American Plywood Association (APA) trademark, comes from the factories with a durability classification of Exposure 1. A variety of APA wood structural panels, including plywood and oriented strand board (OSB) can be applied over metal framing. Our plywood provides outstanding performance for roofs, floors and wall sheathing. for pricing and availability. Select from 51 workshops being held online August 3 – 7. Birch Plywood Panels. Applies to APA RATED SHEATHING and APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR panels 24 inches or wider applied over two or more spans. I am about to lay 1/2" APA Underlayment rated plywood down as an underlayment over 3/4" plywood subfloor for 1/2 strand woven bamboo. Span rating is a 2 number index such as XX/YY 1. Both OSB and plywood are made by gluing and pressing wood together, although the process of doing so differs considerably. Plywood is sold in a variety of thicknesses, commonly from a quarter to three-quarters of an inch. (b) Applies to APA RATED SHEATHING. Plywood Plywood is the original wood structural panel. Product Species Thickness Other Info; Southern Yellow Pine: 19/32”, 23/32” Tongue & Groove: Western Fir: 19/32”, 23/32” & 1-1/8” Scant & Full Face. The values given in Tables 1 and 2 represent the maximum. PLYWOOD SHEATHING APA 20/0 STRUCTURAL. The several materials available for underlayment include particle board, hardboard and oriented-strand board (OSB), but American Plywood Association (APA)-graded plywood is widely accepted as a suitable choice for most jobs. For more information of any of these products, please contact your local James Latham depot. This checklist takes each grade and indicates specific finishes and veneer strengths alongside those European standards that you can expect APA’s CE. APA has never actually tested H-clips to see how much they improve (reduce) deflection. , Secretary. 548 million for the 1,032 days since the first written staff letter was sent outlining the violations. In general, the Past Tense is used to talk about something that started and finished at a definite time in the past. Thanks pb4sc. Design should be based on the value in boldface for each combination. To identify an APA approved Performance Rated Plywood Panel, look for the APA trademark on the back and/or side of the sheet. Department of Commerce. For Span-Rated plywood sheathing, the tested plywood failed to meet the required 0. Span rating is a 2 number index such as XX/YY 1. US Voluntary Product Standard PS 1-09 Structural Plywood PS1-09 Structural PlywoodPS 1-09 is a product standard covering the requirements for American plywood intended for structural (loadbearing) use. 3/4-in x 2-ft x 4-ft Southern Yellow Pine Plywood Sheathing. All definitions are approved by humans before publishing. Plywood APA abbreviation meaning defined here. If you already know how to use the Present Tense, then the Past Tense will be easy. What does APA stand for in Plywood? Get the top APA abbreviation related to Plywood. Model #3424CCPCE. Birch plywood is characterized by excellent strength and stiffness properties, and therefore it performs very well in applications demanding high strength and rigidity. Plywood – structural – part 1: determination of structural properties – test methods AS/NZS 2269. provide structural support. Check the current edition for updated design and application recommendations. com is FREE FOREVER. See full list on homedepot. All resilient flooring manufacturers approve the use of appropriately-graded APA plywood under all types of resilient flooring, provided it is installed correctly. Nail Size. That's why I'm asking. 032" aluminum. 1/4” Minimum Penetration through Plywood. Plywood can be sold in sizes up to 6 ft * 25 ft and by the scarf jointing of small sheets up to 6 ft *40 ft, however 6 ft*3 ft is the most common size. 40 pcf retention. However, Baltic Birch plywood is generally regarded as being of higher quality than standard birch plywood. If mounting virtually isn’t enough and you need to burn the image to disk, you can. Our Bruynzeel Okoume Gaboon (Aucoumea klaineana) plywood is rated as BS 1088 and is the best product to be used for boat building and extreme environments. , Secretary. But plywood has many advantages: •Dimensional stability. A: There are two plywood adhesives. Plywood gets a clean bill-of-health from everyone. But this type of plywood can also be used in crates, internal structures, bins, boxes, and outdoor furniture. Plywood produced by APA – The Engineered Wood Association member mills to conform with Voluntary Product Standard PS 1-95 carries a trademark on every panel. These APA panels are performance rated. Plywood or panels secured to trusses with construction adhesive. Plywood – structural – part 1: determination of structural properties – test methods AS/NZS 2269. The roof sheathing clips always pop off before the panels fail (due to the amount of deflection). 98km (07) 3279 7111. 0 Plywood – structural – part 0: specifications AS/NZS 2269. The type of plywood you choose will depend on what the material will be subjected to after the installation is complete. This organization has been operating for approximately 88 years. According to APA's Engineered Wood Construction Guide, edge support, using tongue-and-groove or 2 in. Plywood berbentuk lembaran yang biasanya memiliki ketebalan kelipatan 3, yaitu 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 dan 18. Voluntary Product Standard PS-1 for Structural Plywood. at panel ends and 12" o. Severe Weather. You’ll find facts about plywood uses, grading and specs. It’s made up of several thin layers of wood, or plys, which are laid in opposite directions to one another. According to the APA, Exterior 1 panels “are designed for applications where long construction delays may be expected prior to providing protection, or where high moisture conditions may be encountered in service. APA Concrete Forming Design/Construction Guide provides detailed information to assist in the selection and specification process of concrete form plywood. It is CE-certified and emission-free as per E1 standard. 1f APA Rim Board may be used in lieu of I-joists. Tongue and Groove or Square Edge. Plywood or panels secured to trusses with construction adhesive. • Plywood to conform to requirements of BS EN 636. the letter "A" is the best level of plywood veneer you can buy (that means plywood without any noticeable knots, holes, or repaired defects), then letters C and D certainly indicate a lower grade of quality when talking about plywood in general—and the price will reflect this. 3) The APA and the Tile Council of America & ANSI Standard A108 do not recommend 24-inch spacing of joists under tile. Hardwood plywood offers a strong, inexpensive, and environmentally responsible alternative to its solid wood counterparts. The unique features of the screw means no pre drilling is required and there is a reduced chance of bulging or splitting the plywood. Includes APA RATED SHEATHING/CEILING DECK. This style has knots. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is committed to ensuring accessibility of its website to people with disabilities. According to the APA, Exterior 1 panels “are designed for applications where long construction delays may be expected prior to providing protection, or where high moisture conditions may be encountered in service. We're dedicated to meeting the diverse needs of our customers with affordable high-quality products and with the wise use and management of our renewable. PS 1-09 – APA’s Technical Guide, with APA Typical Trademarks. Click here to download Plywood Spec Sheets Sanded Plywood Concrete Form Underlayment Plywood Performance Rated Sheathing Radiant Barrier Sheathing Classic Beaded Siding Treated Wood Spec Sheets Appalachian Split Rail Classic Split Rail Agricultural […]. Our plywood is manufactured with high-quality veneers of Doug Fir timber, most of which is sourced from our own forestlands, and is compliant with Voluntary Production Standard PS 1. These grades are typically sold at a premium and have more stable margins than commodity plywood markets. The finest range of pre-laminated MDF boards at affordable prices at Assam Plywood Agencies. Furnished: YES Lease Term: Minimum 1 month. For many years the American Plywood Association, now known as APA – The Engineered Wood Association, has worked to ensure that producers of engineered wood products meet stringent quality standards. - The Proof is in Our Panels! -For Specs and general information on our wood products, click the APA link. For sanded plywood panels, see Table 3. plywood construction, bolted connections. APA plywood is designated under the lowest E1 category for formaldehyde release without needing further testing. Plywood Grades Douglas fir plywood (DFP) and Canadian sowood plywood (CSP) are the most common types of plywood used in construcon applicaons throughout Canada, wher eas poplar plywood is less common. • CE marked to BS EN 13986 Plywood for use in humid conditions EN 636-2 S. APA was founded in 1933 as the Douglas Fir Plywood Association to advance the interests of the burgeoning Pacific Northwest plywood industry. applies to APA Rated Plywood Sturd-I-Floor. To find the properties and stresses for a 19/32" APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 20 oc Exposure 1 panel (with veneer faces and inner plies), the Guide indicates level two (S-2) stresses should be used with Table 1. What does APA stand for in Plywood? Get the top APA abbreviation related to Plywood. Dengan penangangan yang baik, multiplek bisa bertahan hingga sepuluh tahun. Panels with B-grade or better veneer on both sides usually carry the APA trademark on the panel edge. Thanks pb4sc. Not all plywood is the nominal thickness after drying. Apa itu Plywood, MDF dan Partikel Board ? 23/05/2015 19/09/2016 sembilanstudio arsitektur , interior project , kesehatan , lingkungan , promo , umum Terdapat beberapa jenis material kayu yang sering dipakai untuk kebutuhan furniture/mebel selain kayu solid. Tables 2a through 2c apply to APA Rated OSB Sheathing, APA Rated OSB Structural I Sheathing, and APA Rated OSB Sturd-I-Floor respectively. APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc plywood, commonly called 2-4-1, is also used in heavy timber roof construction. Inspect Plywood Combination Sub floor Underlayment (R503. 5/8" thick with a rough sawn finish, Texture 1-11 siding offers a rustic appearance. Highlights of the research reported in the above references are included in Appendix A to this report. ft 2x4 lumber (approximate quantity). Net face widths for tongue-and-groove panels are given in Table 1. It was founded in 1933 as the Douglas Fir Plywood Association, and has grown along with the introduction of new innovations to represent manufacturers in both the US and Canada through applied research, product certification and market development. Do not intentionally leave spacing or gaps between panels. Specifications and Mill Capabilities We manufacture plywood products to various grades, dimensions and performance specifications appropriate for a wide range of applications. As the second largest plywood producer in North America, Boise Cascade owns and operates eight plywood mills across the U. The t&g feature just happened to be a byproduct of the type of wood I was looking for, and 3/4 was the only size available to me. Sheathing Sanded Sturd-I-Floor Exterior Siding Concrete Forming Panels Marine Grade Plywood. Yellow pine and Douglas fir are the types of wood treated with borate. 3 meters), and the plywood panels you want to use are 4 feet (1. is a full service wood products company. Hardwood plywood offers a strong, inexpensive, and environmentally responsible alternative to its solid wood counterparts. I know a. Panels are either 24-gauge steel or 0. Consult with a professional installer, licensed contractor or, for detailed application and installation instructions, write to: APA- The Engineered Wood Association 7011 S. Panel grade—The term “grade” may refer to panel grade or veneer grade. All loads are based on two span condition (C = 96 in/ft) with panels 24 inches wide or wider, strength axis perpendicular to supports. We supply plywood at any grade, any thickness (1~100mm), any sizes at most competitive prices. But plywood has many advantages: •Dimensional stability. Tried-and-true is appealing in an environment where everyone wants to blame the other guy for problems that might arise. The American Plywood Association worked to ensure quality standards for many years. Please refer to your digital catalog or our website if you require immediate information. If you examine plywood closely you may notice a repetition of the wood grain pattern. The type of plywood you choose will depend on what the material will be subjected to after the installation is complete. ' Apa Kingdom has not made any significant progress in the areas of infrastructural development, our towns and villages are not supplied with potable water, roads, electricity and has no access to other basic amenities and services,' said Oba OIlufemiloye in his speech at his fifth coronation anniversary celebration on Saturday, January 4. The grade refers to the grade of surface covering. Ideal for both residential and commercial projects. 0 Plywood – structural – part 0: specifications AS/NZS 2269. Plywood produced on or after Jan. KEYWORDS Certification, inspection, and grademarking of plywood, plywood classification, plywood product standard, plywood veneer, structural plywood, terminology. See full list on homedepot. When using plywood as an underlayment ¼” (6. Typical APA sanded plywood trademarks (edgemarks and backstamps) are illus-trated and explained above. Plywood veneers for general purposes are graded from A grade being the top grade to D grade being the bottom or lowest grade. structural specifications of the plywood panel. Plywood is also, pound for pound, stronger than steel. APA style, writing format developed by the above; American Psychoanalytic Association; American Psychopathological Association; APA – The Engineered Wood Association, formerly known as the American Plywood Association. Priming is not necessary on clean, dry plywood. The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need not be adjusted for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments. Apa ratings for plywood keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. For example, a sheet of plywood with a D rating will have many open knots and splits that are not corrected with filler. Inspection Agency AA-649 (Type A) has met the requirements of AC98, IAS Accreditation Criteria for Inspection Agencies, and has demonstrated compliance. The APA: The Engineered Wood Association is a trade organization that develops product standards, installation standards, and does certification testing of engineered wood products such as plywood and OSB (oriented strand board). The recommended design method is based on recognized engineering formulas, further developed by the United States Forest Products Laboratory, and refined and verified in a series of tests reported in APA – The Engineered Wood Association. is certified by the APA. 3/4" Thick Plywood Backer Features Mounts to rear wall of ReBox, QuadCab, IDF and Industrial enclosures Ordering Information Height Finish Catalog NumberUPC Number 40" Fire-retardant White REKBB40 662620829258 Listings APA grade AC plywood painted fire-retardant Specifications Material APA Grade Plywood Thickness 3/4" Finish Painted fire. What is APA Format? - Writing Prompts Essay Prompt 1: Write an essay that explains what APA format is, what types of fields it is used in, and why it is used. Follow underlayment manufacturer’s installation instructions for spacing and fastening. Plywood is made by sticking three or more boards (veneers) of wood together with some sort of adhesive. Plywood is made of three or more thin layers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. January 2020. Treated lumber and plywood can be provided with an FSC chain of custody by SPECIAL ORDER. Some consumers still perceive plywood as a better quality product—unlike OSB, it actually looks like wood and most people are familiar with it—which is one reason plywood dominates the market for DIY projects. It was the first Indian company to manufacture marine plywood in 1951 and quickly became one of India's preeminent plywood companies, with 11 factories and over 4000 employees spread across India. com or 1-800. Working stresses and other design criteria are given in the Plywood Design Specification (PDS). Pengertian Plywood. Like HDO, Medium Density Overlay plywood is manufactured with an Exterior Bond Classification. We strive to meet the evolving needs of our customers, and we are members of the American Plywood Association (APA). a) For all flooring except the ToughGuard II Installation System , Armstrong Flooring recommends an additional 1/4" or thicker layer of APA plywood underlayment. After 20 phone calls, three visits to the Warren County site, one meeting at the APA offices, four staff letters and three proposed and subsequently ignored settlements, Hubbard recommended the Manhattan men get the maximum fine of $1. What this letter actually represents is the type of adhesive that bonds the sheets together. Must be designed in accordance w/ Florida Building Code 2017. AWPA Standards are developed by its technical committees in an ANSI accredited consensus-based process that involves individuals from all facets of wood preservation: Producers of preservatives and preservative components; producers of treated and untreated wood. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Veneer definition, a thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood. The testing is typically for DOC PS1 and PS2. Panels are either 24-gauge steel or 0. Prime and paint or use two coats of opaque (solid color) stain. For sanded plywood panels, see Table 3. Includes C-C, C-C STR-1, C-D, and C-D STR 1 plywood and APA performance rated nonveneer panels. The second letter indicates the backside of the plywood. Minimum 15/32" APA rated plywood or minimum 7/16" APA rated OSB is placed over the insulation and may be secured to the steel deck. The Span Rating on APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR and APA RATED SIDING panels appears as a single number. cc APA-The Engineered Wood Association is a nonprofit trade association focusing on helping the industry create structural wood products of exceptional strength, versatility and reliability. The overlay is bonded to the panel face under high heat and pressure. If you have a system that is different from this, perhaps you should call the Tile Council at 601-939-2071 and get advice directly from them. 0 Plywood – structural – part 0: specifications AS/NZS 2269. Hardwood plywood. A few factors impact the weight of plywood. Please be advised that due to COVID-19, catalog mailings may be delayed. for Construction and Industrial Plywood, developed cooperatively by the plywood industry and the U. plywood producers claim a competing product from Brazil has a high risk of failure in major hurricanes, but consumers can’t tell because the imported wood is falsely certified as. This trademark performance grading. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider. Eligible for LEED ® and GreenGlobes™ credits: Contact Tolko to find out how you may be eligible for credits. The first letter refers to the grade of face veneers and the second letter refers to the grade of back veneers. Tekstur lapisan kayunya lebih rapat, sehingga memiliki kekuatan yang lebih baik dan daya tahan terhadap air lebih kuat. Many kinds and types of plywood are available in the market today. A structural wood panel composed of a D-grade or better face, back and inner plies cross-banded for strength. SCO 10, Sector 82. Apa ratings for plywood keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. It's ideal for handling long or bulky loads such as steel, bar stock, tubing, laminates, lumber or plywood - with stacking capabilities up to 30 feet high. Plywood Clips & Wall Ties. Sizes: Available in a wide variety of grades. a) For all flooring except the ToughGuard II Installation System , Armstrong Flooring recommends an additional 1/4" or thicker layer of APA plywood underlayment. PS 1-09 – APA’s Technical Guide, with APA Typical Trademarks. APA HEADQUARTERS: 7011 So. 3 KEY DEFINITIONS. For Span-Rated plywood sheathing, the tested plywood failed to meet the required 0. It is CE-certified and emission-free as per E1 standard. Hardwood plywood can cost about as much as an equal quantity of solid hardwood, depending on grade and appearance. Phone: 250-373-5600 Fax: 250-373-5665. It is is the best solution for your concrete forming projects. Sheathing pressure-treated 4’x8’plywood which might very in thickness from 1/4” to 3/4” widely used for different outdoor applications. Mills now produce about 1. Actual product may vary by (and not limited to) dimension, color, grain, etc. The Association's trademarks appear only on products manufactured by member mills. Sebagai bahan alternative pengganti solid, plywood tentu saja memiliki keunggulan yang tidak dapat ditemukan di material lain, seperti: Tidak seperti kayu solid, plywood tidak mudah bowing dan memuai sehingga lebih awet digunakan dalam pembuatan mebel dengan bidang datar yang lebar seperti pintu, meja, dan dresser. For the applications described here, APA Rated Sheathing or APA Rated Sturd-I-Floor® meet the requirements for structural sheath-ing and flooring. It is smooth and finished on each sides to promote an even flat finish along with its oiled properties to be easily detached from the concrete when dry. for pricing and availability. The 24-gauge steel material is ASTM. Subflooring — Min 23/32 in. Because APA has no control over quality of workmanship or the conditions under which engineered wood products are used, it cannot accept responsibility of product performance or designs as actually constructed. We strive to meet the evolving needs of our customers, and we are members of the American Plywood Association (APA). 354, Unused 7 sheets available Hardwood Plywood Sheets 9’6”L x 33. The APA Product Support Help Desk can answer your questions about engineered wood products, systems and applications. Panels with B-grade or better veneer on both sides usually carry the APA trademark on the panel edge. Decorative veneers & panels for high-end cabinetry, furniture, millwork and commercial. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA. This agrees with APA's Engineered Wood Construction Guide (see Panel Specification Guide on page 16). Like HDO, Medium Density Overlay plywood is manufactured with an Exterior Bond Classification. APA PS1 - Structural Plywood (with Typical APA Trademarks) January 1, 2009 - APA This Voluntary Product Standard establishes requirements for the principal types and grades of structural plywood and provides a basis for common understanding among producers, distributors, and users of the product. APA RATED STURD-I-FLOOR 48 oc plywood, commonly called 2-4-1, is also used in heavy timber roof construction. Working stresses and other design criteria are given in the Plywood Design Specification (PDS). diaphragm sheathing. How is American Plywood Association (now the Engineered Wood Association) abbreviated? APA stands for American Plywood Association (now the Engineered Wood Association). Eligible for LEED ® and GreenGlobes™ credits: Contact Tolko to find out how you may be eligible for credits. Canada, V0K 2J0. APA Plywood is manufactured in thicknesses ranging from 6 mm. When using plywood as an underlayment ¼” (6. Enhancing the quality of manuscripts submitted to the journal of agricultural education: perceptions of experienced reviewers. If you’re paneling one wall that’s 15 feet (4. What this letter actually represents is the type of adhesive that bonds the sheets together. For design capacities, section properties, and equivalent specific gravity values of AdvanTech, refer to ICC‐ES ESR‐ 1785. Model #3424CCPCE. But plywood has many advantages: •Dimensional stability. Plywood is sold in a variety of thicknesses, commonly from a quarter to three-quarters of an inch. As with WBP plywood, the letters R, T and D do not refer to the grade of plywood, but rather to an important part of the manufacturing process. Each type of plywood varies on its usage and the materials composition. It is smooth and finished on each sides to promote an even flat finish along with its oiled properties to be easily detached from the concrete when dry. APA is defined as American Plywood Association (now the Engineered Wood Association) very frequently. 3/4" Tongue and Groove (APA Grade Stamped) $42 each 1-1/8" x 4'x8' Fir $36 each. • Suitable for use in BS EN 335 Use class 2. 34SCANT Douglas Fir Plywood Underlayment - Scant Face 5 Ply Tongue and Groove. APA Plywood. , Secretary. Plywood is made of three or more thin layers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. There is 2x4 support under the plywood every 2 feet and 4x6 wood at each end of the 4 foot length. Typical APA Panel Constructions, is pro-vided to assist in selecting panel con-structions for specific Span Ratings. 28 at Chester will carry the APA grade stamp, showing that the panels meet or exceed the quality standards of U. Veneer definition, a thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood. The American Plywood Association is a nonprofit trade association whose member mills produce approximately 80 percent of the structural wood panel products manufactured in the United States and a significant percentage of panels produced in Canada. Plywood is a cheap and durable building supply that is used both for exterior and interior building purposes as well as for building furniture and cabinets. Use it to create strong walls, roofs, and floors. The BC simply means there’s one B-grade side sanded and smooth, backed by a C-grade side. Window & Door Manufacturers Assc. Panel have a maximum width of 18" and a 2" tall double lock standing seam rib. West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau Visit Website. Enhancing the quality of manuscripts submitted to the journal of agricultural education: perceptions of experienced reviewers. Most relevant lists of abbreviations for APA (American Plywood Association). Learn more about the actual thickness of plywood. Department of Commerce. APA EXTERIOR Plywood (DFP, CSP, and Aspen) is manufactured in a size of 1220 mm by 2440 mm, the metric equivalent of the familiar 4 ft by 8 ft panel. 6, Reexamination. Natron Jasper Wood Products are part of the Jasper-Natron family of companies and are located in Jasper, Lane County, Oregon. 5”W – set of 3 sheet for $100 $100. Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i. ), Concise Rules of APA Style (7th ed. APA Rated Sheathing Span Rating Bond Classification Mill Number APA Panel Grade Product Standard and Panel Grade HUD Recognition Performance Category APA Rated OSB Sheathing Roof Panels Performance Category* APA Span Rating Allowable Live Load for Roofs (psf)** 3/8 24/0 30 7/16 24/16 40 15/32 32/16 70 1/2 32/16 70 19/32 40/20 130 23/32 48/24 175. Minimum 15/32" APA rated plywood or minimum 7/16" APA rated OSB is placed over the insulation and may be secured to the steel deck. ~ ~ T-111 style Siding Choices $19 T-111 shop Siding 4'x8' x 3/8" thick Saw Textured with No Grooves Beautiful Durable Okoume wood face. We carry a wide selection of plywood and sheet-goods, and offer more specialty items at a quick lead time. Inspection Agency AA-649 (Type A) has met the requirements of AC98, IAS Accreditation Criteria for Inspection Agencies, and has demonstrated compliance. Regular MDO is produced with B-grade face and back veneers and C-grade inner plies. AC,AB, BC & MDO. Plywood terbuat dari lembaran-lembaran tipis kayu yang arah seratnya disusun saling melintang. Plywood is a widely recognized engineered wood-based panel product that has been used in Canadian construction projects for decades. Table 3 covers APA Sanded and Touch-Sanded Plywood Panels. Mills now produce about 1. CDX plywood is fairly easy to spot on the shelf. Design should be based on the value in boldface for each combination. Adhesive and technology improvements eventually led to the manufacture of structural plywood from Southern pine and other species, and in 1964 the Association changed its name to American Plywood. A structural wood panel composed of a D-grade or better face, back and inner plies cross-banded for strength. These panels have. Standards • Structural plywood as listed in BS EN 1995-1-1. Dinding rumah bisa kamu sulap jadi lebih keren dengan hiasan dinding dari kayu. That's why I'm asking. We're dedicated to meeting the diverse needs of our customers with affordable high-quality products and with the wise use and management of our renewable. RTD plywood is the next generation of plywood made specifically for the construction industry. Some consumers still perceive plywood as a better quality product—unlike OSB, it actually looks like wood and most people are familiar with it—which is one reason plywood dominates the market for DIY projects. txt) or read online for free. Includes C-C, C-C STR-1, C-D, and C-D STR 1 plywood and APA performance rated nonveneer panels. 3 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness according to APA Plywood Design. Consult your local jurisdiction or design professional to assure compliance with code, construction and performance requirements. Working stresses and other design criteria are given in the Plywood Design Specification (PDS). 548 million for the 1,032 days since the first written staff letter was sent outlining the violations. Best companies in this field not only deliver quality plywood products but also guarantees for after sale services in case of any faults or repairs. A structural wood panel composed of a D-grade or better face, back and inner plies cross-banded for strength. Mills now produce about 1. Plywood APA abbreviation meaning defined here. For more information, please contact Hoover Treated Wood Products Inc. We can then provide take-offs, present a competitive quote, prepare your complete package, and provide timely delivery to your jobsite. 0 Standards U. Not approved by APA. Common Thicknesses Plywood 1/4" to 1-1/8" thick is available, with the most common thicknesses. It has a Type A (wbp) phenolic bond glue and is manufactured from woods based on density, bending strength, impact resistance and surface finishing characteristics. 4 Minimum 15/32” thick, APA Rated Plywood over supports at maximum 24” O. Georgia-Pacific Corporation 133 Peachtree Street, NortheastAtlanta [1], Georgia [2] 30303-5605U. AB, AC, and AD), the consumer can tell that two panels are glued together, with each side being a different quality of plywood. The plywood sheets range from 3/8ths to 5/8ths of an inch thick and come in 4×8 sheets. Learn more about us. Since 1957, our focus has been on providing our customers with top of the line plywood products, more quickly and efficiently than anyone else in the industry. From humble beginnings in the heart of Alabama's pine belt, Scotch Plywood Company, Inc. Plywood produced on or after Jan. Product Standard, PS 1-09 for Structural Plywood. ” These panels are marked with span ratings , which indicate the maximum center-to-center distance, in inches, between the joists or studs to which the panel is fastened during construction.